Sunday, May 24, 2020

NURSING PROFESSION AND HISTORY - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4073 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Career Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION Nursing is a demanding profession. Nurses are bombarded daily with many tasks and responsibilities. Nursing today is practiced in various settings and is a vital part of the health care system. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "NURSING PROFESSION AND HISTORY" essay for you Create order Nurses are present in hospitals, schools, rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, out-patient centres, clinics, and homes. A consumer perceives these professionals as trained individuals that work to contribute to a patients maintenance and health issues. Nursing is seen as an ever expanding field. The aim of this study was to find out the determinants of job satisfaction of nurses in Mauritius. The purpose was also to find out about the experiences of nurses in their hospital environment in Mauritius and to accumulate knowledge on the role of nurses in Mauritius. Also the criteria were that the nurses should have been educated in Mauritius and at the same time have a minimum of 2 years of experience in nursing field. According to nurses at Dr Jeetoo hospital where this study was carried out, no previous researches have been done investigating about job satisfaction among nurses in that hospital. Job satisfaction is generally regarded as an employees attitude toward the job and job si tuation. Spector (1997, p. 1) defines job satisfaction simply as the degree to which people like their jobs. Some people therefore enjoy work and consider it a central part of their lives while others do so only because they have to NURSING PROFESSION AND HISTORY One of the names that should not be forgotten in nursing is of Florence Nightingale. Florence Nightingale was also known as the Lady with the Lamp. Two of Florences greatest achievements were pioneering of nursing and the reform of hospitals (Audain, 1999). She gathered data on mortality and morbidity during the Crimean War at the hospital in Scutari. She used her skills in statistical analysis to argue for reform of the British Army medical system. Nursing, according to Henderson, includes both independent and interdependent aspects that must be taken into consideration in the development of the nurse and of nursing as a profession (Evers, 2003). Virginia Henderson believed that patient care was, and is, the major objective of nurses (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Nursing is accountable to the patient and family to provide the highest quality of care and the knowledge to provide this care. The nurse spends the most time with the patient and family which makes him/her accountable t o the interdisciplinary health care team to share information acquired that may be pertinent to their care (Hood and Leddy, 2003). The nurse is also accountable to self for his/her own actions and the actions of co-workers. Nursing profession in Mauritius Nurses in Mauritius assess, provide preventative, curative and rehabilitative care for the sick and disabled in a wide variety of settings including public hospitals and private clinics, the community services, and in industry. In Mauritius the regulating body for nurses is called Nursing Council of Mauritius (NCM). Although nursing has a long history of an ethic of care, the context in which nurses now practice has changed and expanded. Consequently, this has led to the establishment of the Code of Practice as nursing started orientating itself toward professionalism. (NCM Act 43) The Nursing Council of Mauritius code of practice explains what standards of care, patients and the public can expect from the workforce in the hospital, private clinics, and homes and in the community. It is not a collection of bulky rules, but instead briefly outlines a set of principles which nurses and midwives should use to inform and underpin their practice. (NCM Act 2003) According to nurses at Dr Jeetoo hospital in Mauritius most of them believed they are expected to get familiar with patient records, assists those who need help, be able to monitor their conditions and keep records of their patients. Also, they should be able to give patient counselling and educate the public about healthy living Definition of work and culture Different types of culture mean that different people have a different meaning of work. Things like art, music and literature are understood to be as culture in daily life as described by (Chapman 1992). As adults there is nothing that more preoccupies our lives than work. From the ages of approximately eighteen to seventy we will spend our lives working. We will not spend as much time sleeping, enjoying our families, eating, or recreating and resting as much as we will working. Whether we love our work or hate it, succeed in it or fail, achieve fame or infamy through it, like Sisyphus (Camus 1991) we are all condemned to push and chase that thing we call our job, our career, our work all of our days. Even those of us who desperately dont want to work, wrote famous poet Ogden Nash, must work in order to earn enough money so that they wont have to work anymore. Job satisfaction, Mauritian culture and work Job satisfaction is generally regarded as an employees attitude toward the job and job situation. Spector (1997, p. 1) defines job satisfaction simply as the degree to which people like their jobs. Some people therefore enjoy work and consider it a central part of their lives while others do so only because they have to. There have been several theories in conjunction with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction proposed by experts, but this work restricts its discussion to two main theories from two outstanding scholars, Maslow (1943) and Herzberg, et al. (1959). According to his theory, employees were motivated to satisfy when their five basic types of needs are fulfilled; they are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem and self-actualization. This theory suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs in which one or employee needs to satisfy his or her lower need adequately before stepping to a higher order need. Subsequently, once the employee has been able to f ulfil the need, it is highly likely that the need will no longer motivate employees behaviour at work, Stone (1998). Herzberg, et al (1959) proposed a theory known with the so-called two-factor theory or in other words known as a two-hierarchy of needs, namely first is motivators or satisfiers are higher needs for achievement or the individuals need for self-actualization in his work. They are the job itself, recognition, achievement, responsibility, and advancement. These then play role to determine either the job satisfaction or job performance. Afterwards is hygiene or maintenance factors are believed to be lower order needs they are: supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, status, salary, and advancement. If these factors are well administered by any organization, they can prevent employees negative attitudes or employees dissatisfaction. Mauritius has got a mix of culture locally called the salad of culture. This is so, because of the history of Mauritius. Dif ferent people from different parts of the world were brought into Mauritius as slaves, and this nowadays has resulted in different religions and cultures forming out. According to Central intelligence agency census, there is at present a population of more than one million of which Hindu religions is 48%, Roman Catholic 23.6%, Muslim 16.6%, other Christian 8.6%, other 2.5%, and unspecified 0.3%, none 0.4% according to the 2000 census. The ethnic group in Mauritius are as follows: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, and Franco-Mauritian 2%. It is worth noting that Mauritius has 14 days of public holidays because of such difference in culture and religion thus respecting them all. According to the Central intelligence agency survey languages spoken by locals are as follows: Creole 80.5%, Bhojpuri 12.1%, French 3.4%, English; spoken by less than 1% of the population), other 3.7%, and unspecified 0.3%. In Mauritius, some people work for the satisfaction that comes from it while some strictly for money. The work force is about half of the total population and unemployment rate at 7.6% FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION AND NURSING JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is a complex variable and is influenced by factors of the job environment as well as dispositional characteristics of an individual. These factors have been arranged according to two dimensions, namely, extrinsic and intrinsic factors (Buitendach De Witte, 2005). The extrinsic factors include things like salary, promotion opportunities, co-workers, supervision and recognition. Intrinsic factors include personality, education, intelligence and abilities, age and marital status (Mullins, 1999). According to Spector (1997), these categories of factors often work together to influence job satisfaction too. As in the field of nursing a lot of researches have been done on nurses job satisfaction. Supervising and leadership factors were found to be playing important parts in nurses job satisfaction, according to Irvine Evans (1995, 249). At the same time the author mentions about how the job content and environmental factors play an important role in influencing job sat isfaction among nurses. According to Spector (1997), some research has attempted to investigate the interaction between job and person factors to see if certain types of people respond differently to different types of jobs. This approach states that there will be job satisfaction when characteristics of the job are matched to the characteristics of the person AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY The aim of this study was to find out the determinants of job satisfaction of nurses in Mauritius. The results obtained will not be generalised to all the working nurses in Mauritius. The purpose is to find out about the experiences of nurses in their hospital environment in Mauritius and to accumulate knowledge on the role of nurses in Mauritius. Some research questions that came out for the aims and objectives of the study are as follows: 1. What are the determinants of job satisfaction in Mauritius? 2. How do nurses feel working in Mauritius? In this study, all information has been obtained and processed anonymously, and without using any participants names. The data was put into groups and participants were clearly instructed not to sign or write their name in any part of the paper. The box that was in the staff room was sealed, and was checked if it has been tampered with before opening. Also the criteria were that the nurses should have been educated in Mauritius and at the s ame time have a minimum of 2 years of experience in nursing field. According to nurses at Dr Jeetoo hospital where this study was carried out, no previous researches have been done investigating about job satisfaction among nurses in that hospital RESEARCH METHODS Qualitative method The qualitative method style was used in this work because the study concentrates more at looking out for the factors that influence job satisfaction rather than to calculate it. (Dey 1993) mentioned that the qualitative data refer to the number depend on meaning, but in some cases, the level of the clearness of our concept and subject would have great influence on the usefulness of data that collected. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2003) argued that because of the interrelationship between qualitative data and its related collection process and research topic, the nature of qualitative data would have much implication on the collection process and analyzing phase. The research was conducted in three different places at Dr. Jeetoo hospital in Mauritius. They were the accident and emergency, the cancer unit and the burns units. This hospital is the main hospital and most advanced and biggest hospital in Mauritius. It has around 200 beds, and provides its services for ab out 25% of Mauritius population. It has both inpatient and outpatient services. The Chief Officer of the hospital was contacted by phone and permission was obtained. Afterwards, 28 nurses in the above mentioned wards were contacted and those willing to participate in the study came forward. Along with a letter (see appendices) explaining a summary of the study being conducted a questionnaire was given to the participating nurses.(See Appendix 1 and 2 ) A total of 15 questionnaires were given out and after five days the box meant for the filled questionnaire was fetched from the hospital staff rooms. Surprisingly, all the questionnaires were returned, but on closer inspection only 8 questionnaires were correctly filled. The others were half answered only and therefore those questions that could be taken into account were taken in the study. At the same time the open ended questions did not have much information on them too. Most of them, but not all had short phrases and words only. Data collection and analysis Qualitative data analysis was used to find the factors that influence job satisfaction among nurses. The questionnaire design played an important role in the data collection. It had to be in such a way so as to optimize the collection of qualitative data, so a semi-structure questionnaire was used, and questions were both open and close ended. Dillman (2000) points out that basically there are three types of data that can be collected through a well-designed questionnaire. They are opinion, behaviour and attribute. Therefore, each question on researchers questionnaire is ensuing that these essential data can be effectively collected. There are two distinct models for data collection and analysis. The first states that the data is collected and then analysed and the second model states that data collection and analysis can happen concurrently (Robson, 1993). The first type is as a positivist, quantitative approach and the second as a phenomenologist, qualitative approach. Qualitativ e data are considered to be the rough materials researchers collect from the world they are studying; they are the particulars that form the basis of analysis (Bogdan Biklen, 1992, p. 106) Content analysis method was used to process the information obtained through the questionnaire. First the data is identified, coded and then categorised. (Patton 1990, 281) So, all the questionnaires were read and then words, phrases and ideas which happened to used frequently was put down and the unit of analysis was formed by breaking those responses into words. The two main categories personal factors and job related factors were formed in advanced with the help of knowledge from previous studies, and the words were put under them. Only those words and group of words having the same meaning, or brings to the same idea was used. Those words were carefully chosen in different parts of the answers in the questionnaire, and then placed under the main categories. Once the questionnaires were no lon ger of use they were destroyed. RESULTS The response rate was 54%. Some questionnaires were not filled partially or at all, while others were not included in the results as it was considered misleading. For example a person who is between the ages of 20 to 29 and has a work experience of more than 10 years, is considered fallacious. Little information could be obtained from the questionnaire, so not all the open ended questions could be analysed properly. Questions that had been filled properly, have been process in a more approachable style. Nurses experiences of their work place The experiences of the nurses concerning their work were obtained from the last two questions in the questionnaire given out. (See questionnaire appendix) Explain your feelings towards this job Please write about your experiences as a nurse in this work place The nurses experiences were divided into three different categories. They were satisfying, demanding and the wish to help. Those three categories are explained below. Many nurses mentioned their work as satisfying. This was pointed in two directions, first one being able to see patients recovering and the other one being of patients relatives who credit them for their effort and work they do. The biggest joy in this work is to see the patients getting better. .really nice and respected when patients family understand and say thank you to me. The workplace, working conditions and the work itself was found to be also very demanding. It was considered so, because of the responsibility it carries. Lack of staff, lack of time, and lack of resources and over crowded hospitals all made their job more demanding and stressful. Most of the nurses mentioned that at times it gets too busy and they cannot cope with some situations, which worsens the work atmosphere. Sometimes we argue among ourselves because its so busy and I dont know what to do first .and have 2 young kids and I am forced to come to work on night shift.. too much responsibility for less money Many nurses pointed out their wish to help people who are suffering. They felt that they do something that comes from their heart. They felt that they do a noble job for the betterment of the society. . feel I am doing a job guided by god, to help sick Factors that influence job satisfaction Personal factors Wish to help From this study, the nurses felt that the biggest factor that influences their job satisfaction was the wish to help the sick patients. They felt that by helping them they felt and inner peace and thus the frequency that the term wish to help was found in the answer to the question Explain the personal factors that influence your job satisfaction was relatively high. .It helps me emotionally when I can help a patient. Money Also, quite surprisingly money was one of the personal factors that influence their job satisfaction. The female nurses, some of them explained that nursing felt like a women job often, and they were adding to the overall house income, and they felt quite satisfied with their salary. At the same time, some of those nurses who were not married felt that the factors that influence their job satisfaction was money because they felt they are underpaid, and too much responsibilities. Some nurses who had comparatively more working experiences than their w orking mates felt that the salary is not worth it, as there is not much gap between new comers and old nurses when the question about number of years in service were looked into the questionnaire. salary is like peanuts Job related factors Work demand The amount of work seemed among the main factors that affect the nurses and this lead to job dissatisfaction. Nurses felt that they had a lot of work to do in one shift and the amount of time they had to do paper work and clinical work could not be in harmony. The felt that more staff should be employed and that because the hospital cuts cost all the times, the amount of work power and resources were not enough. This resulted mainly in work stress and sometimes burnout. Work appreciation and type of work Most nurses felt that their job is however appreciation by patients and the society. This helped boost their morale and thus they felt respected. At the same time, the type of work that they do sometimes brought feelings that they are doing a dirty work. They had to clean diapers and take care of the hygienic needs of patients, which sometimes felt too much. this place is full of dirt and infections Its dirty in here 6.3. Ethical considerations In this study, all inform ation has been obtained and processed anonymously, and without using any participants names. The data was put into groups and participants were clearly instructed not to sign or write their name in any part of the paper. The box that was in the staff room was sealed, and was checked if it has been tampered with before opening. The questionnaires that were given were viewed only by the author and once their purposes were over they were destroyed DISCUSSION Reliability and integrity of this study This response rate in this study was 54% and the responses obtained seemed quite good too. The questionnaire was just good enough to answer this study answers. By using content analysis for this qualitative research, those categories chosen by one researcher can be different from another one, and raises eyebrows on the quality of coding too according to Wilson (1985, 411 412). The data obtained has been carefully analysed and divided into different sub-categories to make sure that this research comes to be as reliable as possible in Mauritius and the reader gets a clear picture concerning this study. The two main categories which were obtained through the help of knowledge from previous studies were chosen before the study results are out, thus helping towards putting the sub-categories under the main ones. At the same time, some categories were affecting others; meaning that all the factors that influence job satisfaction, influence each other too at the same time, under the same condition. The sample that was taken initially (n=15) was quite big sample and may be criticise for a qualitative study but it was done on precautionary measures because the response rate was thought to be lesser that what was expected. The response rate in this study was 54%, meaning that over half the amount of participant nurses had a wish to return the questionnaire and help in this study. The integrity of these results in my point of view will definitely differ over some years to come, as reforms and changes are under way by the government of Mauritius and the Nurse Council, so as to increase labour resources and revise nurses pay scale. This would then mean that more nurses would be satisfied with their work, and thus factors that now are affecting job satisfaction might change maybe in a decade time. As for what the results are, it shows that money was one of the personal factors that influence job satisfaction in Mauritius. This can be because Mauritius is a developing coun try. The general style of the answers were not that good, as some of the questions were not filled correctly while others were not filled at all. This lead to a problem for the author as deep information and the understanding of job satisfaction among nurses in Mauritius could not be gain as properly as anticipated beforehand. The questionnaire had been designed using knowledge from previous studies and questions on the questionnaires were designed to be as accurate as possible though they were open ended style. In this way it would assure the credibility of this study. Unfortunately some of the answers were not relevant to the study at all. Moreover, at times it was difficult to classify ideas under sub categories or bring a group of ideas together to form a phrase that could be put down in this study. The factor that can affect the integrity and credibility of this study is that even English is the official language in Mauritius, at times French also is used as official language. On the flip side of the coin, a French questionnaire was put into proposal, but because the majority of the nurses voted for English questionnaire, thus the latter was chosen Conclusion This study has been able to answer the questions that this research sited earlier. At the same time, this study showed that in general nurses in Mauritius were quite satisfied with their work. The factors which influenced their job satisfaction seemed to be more politically and managerial oriented for example not all the nurses were happy with the work place, some found it dirty place to work while others found it reasonably good. Salary was often mentioned the open ended question concerning the job related factors that affected them. Some of them were satisfied with their salary whereas others with more experience as a nurse saw that they were not that satisfied, thus as a nurse they could not help to influence those factors. Culturally it also showed that money is an important factor in job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction in Mauritius and it depended if the work as a nurse was a primary or secondary job in a family. In general most of the nurses seem to be satisfied or quite satisfied with their work, which shows that only a minority were not happy with this field and are still working. The quality of care is not same as in Europe but still the quality of care is at an acceptable level in the Mauritian point of view. At the moment the results from this study provides an updated information about job satisfaction of nurses in Mauritius and how nurses in Mauritius feel about their work place, worj atmosphere and employer. The management of the hospital will be given the results part of this study and they could in return understand and evaluate the suggestions of the nurses trough this study. At the same time through this study, new questions raised up for example the relationship between nurses and the management. Culture and job satisfaction showed to influence each other also, but other research methods cold be used to verify this study too. Moreover it has been shown in this work that factors that influence job satisfaction can indeed be broken into different parts as mentioned by Cranny, Smith and stone

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Gender Discrimination The Glass Ceiling Affect Gender...

INTRODUCTION: Women workers in the prime working ages of 26 to 59 make only 38 percent of what prime-age men earn,(Marley S. Weiss, 2007, page 64). Discrimination against gender is very common in the workplace. The purpose of this explanatory research is to discuss the discrimination women face in society and the workforce as well as the challenges faced by marital status. The sociological theories on the macro level that will be used to analyze this subject include; the conflict perspective theory, the feminist theory and the functionalist perspective. On this topic of discrimination, the research done will discuss the concepts of double jeopardy, affirmative action, the glass ceiling affect, gender groups, stereotyping, and†¦show more content†¦Because of this many women today still have responsibilities at home which restrict them from pursuing careers that men are stereotyped to have. Inequality in the workplace reflects and reinforces inequality at home. Although husban ds have increased their share of household tasks, recent surveys find that wives still assume at least two thirds of domestic obligations. When paid and unpaid labor are combined, women work longer and have less income than men, (Deborah Rhode,1997, page 142). Women are faced with the stereotype that they are meant to be feminine, gentle, kind patient and affectionate while men are stereotyped to be strong, courageous, and the bread winners of families. This would correspond to the feminist theory, because of this stereotype men believe that they should be the one’s providing for their families while women do all the house work such as cleaning, cooking and also taking care of and raising their children. When work comes into play this typically does not change the roles that women are expected to fulfill at home. Stereotyping is an exaggerated statement about a large group of people and therefore it can be concluded that most stereotypes are false. Men and women should be abl e to do tasks which are viewed as both feminine and/or masculine. Women should have the opportunity to pursue career goals that are labeled as masculine and they should be benefiting from these jobs on an equal level to men. Unfortunately in society there are gender

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Study Habits Free Essays

Sometimes a purely quantitative matter, while having the findings of lengthy, comprehensive research published by a recognized journal is also a notable academic achievement (Ansari 1983 ). When students get admission in a university, they have no idea about studies requirement. Most of them have old patterns of seeking knowledge at the beginning, they apply the same old techniques but after some time they realize that old techniques are no more effective. We will write a custom essay sample on Study Habits or any similar topic only for you Order Now Gradually they started developing mature study style. Some students, when enter the higher education institution, feel free themselves from all the worries of studies which affect their studies negatively. Even they get failed in their tests or exams and there are some other poor study habits which affect the achievement of the students. These are as follow: This is a very common mistake which is made by students, and also most unavoidable from the side of students. When students enter, especially in the universities, they think of themselves free from every duty of studies. When students leave their classes, due to this, their study habits are also affected. They get used to it and lose their positions. If they want to succeed in their life, they should be punctual in their studies, attend all lectures which the teacher delivers in the class. Hostel is a place where usually travelers and students live in a supervised environment. Mostly hostels are used by the students, who come from distant places to earn their degrees. Hostel life has a great impact on the academic achievement of the students. Some students gain knowledge in proper manner but some do not. The reason is that some students do not feel comfortable in hostels and get home sick. On the other side, those students who are day scholars, they also have some problems. Some have home conflicts and other factors which influence their academic achievements. Because of these problems, they can never be able to achieve good results in their academics. Sometimes students those are living in hostels face many difficulties due to economic hardships or home sickness but still work hard and achieve good grade and sometime they deviate due to lack of proper supervision and guidance so in the case of day scholars. Present study is design to explore this mystery that whether day scholar’s students have good study habits and higher academic achievement or hostel living students have more effective study habits and higher academic achievements Statement of the Problem The problem under investigation was to explore the relationship between study habits How to cite Study Habits, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Accounting Tax Tax Returns and Pay Federal Income Taxes

Questions: 1. Does Femme really have to file Federal income tax returns and pay Federal income taxes, or is Femmes coworker who refills the water coolers and vending machines correct that filing income taxes is voluntary since taxpayers can refuse to pay income taxes based on moral grounds by invoking the First Amendment. Why or why not?2. Besides the Federal income tax, what other taxes will Femme pay on Femmes Old School Software Inc. wages, and on Femmes earnings from Killer I App, Inc.?3. Between Short Term Capital Management and Buy And Hold Forever Investment Management, which is the better investment? Why? Answer: 1. According to the provisions of Taxation in United States of America, taxes are to be paid by the individuals on their net income that is determined by following the tax accounting methods. Further, the individuals are required to file Federal income tax returns on making payment for taxes computed on their net income. As per the rules, tax payer assesses are required to pay taxes on income from business, income from property, capital gain income, dividends or any other income that does not fall under the exemption criteria. Besides, the rate of taxes for individual assesses are different according to their filing status (Hoynes, Hilary, Doug Miller, and David Simon, pp. 172-211). In the given case, Femme is an employee of a software company as a software engineer has salary income of $60,000. Apart from that, she is engaged in part-time consulting business and earned $5,000 including the business expenses of $1,000. She was advised by one of her colleagues about the filing of Federal income tax returns. She was told that it is voluntary to file the income tax return and assesses have the right to refuse to pay income tax based on the moral grounds following the First Amendment. The First Amendment of the Frivolous Tax Arguments to the Constitution of United States does not give an assessee a right to refuse for the payment of income tax based on any moral or religious ground to the Federal of United Sates. However, it disallows Congress to promote any specific religion as well as restricts the religious practices of individual (Clingingsmith, David, and Scott Shane, pp. 2495-2989). On considering the above rules laid by the constitution of United States as the First Amendment, Femme is required to file Federal income tax returns for the year of assessment. 2. According to the taxation provision and rulings, Femme is required to pay taxes on her salary income from Old School Software Inc. as well as earnings from the part-time consulting business. Further, the taxable income from the consulting business would be excluding the business expenses amounted to $1,000. Hence, her total taxable income would be salary income $60,000 and $4,000 from consulting business income. Apart from these taxes, Femme is required to pay other taxes like withholding taxes on payroll as an employee portion, income on investment as dividends, interest, capital gain and rent on property (Faccio, Mara, and Jin Xu, pp. 277-300). Femme is planning to investment in two types of investment i.e. on Short-Term Capital Management and in Buy and Hold Forever Investment Management. In case of first investment, Femme expects to earn an income of 13% after the payment of brokerage firm or interest on borrowing (9%). Whereas, in case of second type of investment plan there will not be any borrowing charges. In both the cases, Femme is liable to pay taxes on income from investment at the rates specified in the provisions of the Federal Income Tax of the United States Constitution (Hanlon, Michelle, Edward L. Maydew, and Jacob R. Thornock, pp. 257-287). Further, Femme is required to pay tax on social security on the total salary income as her portion. Femmes employer is required to withhold the social security tax at the rate of 6.2% from the salary $60,000. Since, the status of Femme is single her tax rate would fall under tax rate of 10% for first $9,225. 3. Femme is planning to make investment either in Short-Term Capital Management or in Buy and Hold Forever Investment Management. In case of first type of investment Femme will have to bear the borrowing charges of 9% from the bank or brokerage charges. This management group deals in buying and selling of securities in the duration of four working days. Femme expects to earn a return of 13% per year after deducting the respective charges (Bruno, Sergio, et al, pp. 979-989). On the other hand, Femme plans to invest in other group called Buy and Hold Forever Investment Management in which there would be no borrowing or brokerage charges. However it transacts the securities within an average time of four years with an approximate return of 12% per year. Both the investment schemes are different in the perspective of duration. First scheme involves short- term investment while the second one involves long- term investment as the average time of dealing with transaction is more than one year. Moreover, the percentage of return in the first scheme of investment is an expected return but in the second scheme the percentage of return is consistent since last ten years. Even though the return in first scheme 13% is after the charges of borrowing, there is no surety. Therefore, it is advisable to invest in the second scheme of investment because it shows the constant trend of producing 12% return without any charges (Handley, Kyle, and Nuno Limao, pp. 189-222). Reference List: Bruno, Sergio, et al. "Risk neutral and risk averse approaches to multistage renewable investment planning under uncertainty."European Journal of Operational Research250.3 (2016): 979-989. Clingingsmith, David, and Scott Shane. "WE ARE WHAT WE TAXHOW INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX POLICY AFFECTS ENTREPRENEURSHIP."Fordham L. Rev.84 (2016): 2495-2989. Faccio, Mara, and Jin Xu. "Taxes and capital structure."Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis50.03 (2015): 277-300. Handley, Kyle, and Nuno Limao. "Trade and investment under policy uncertainty: theory and firm evidence."American Economic Journal: Economic Policy7.4 (2015): 189-222. Hanlon, Michelle, Edward L. Maydew, and Jacob R. Thornock. "Taking the long way home: US tax evasion and offshore investments in US equity and debt markets."The Journal of Finance70.1 (2015): 257-287. Hoynes, Hilary, Doug Miller, and David Simon. "Income, the earned income tax credit, and infant health."American Economic Journal: Economic Policy7.1 (2015): 172-211.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Acid Rain essays

Acid Rain essays The concept of acid rain is often misunderstood by the vast majority of the world, however, most realize that it is a problem. The burning of fossil fuels has released pollutants into our earths atmosphere. Once airborne, the pollutants form acidic compounds by combining with water in the atmosphere, hence the name acid rain. The precipitation then reaches the earths surface by means of fog, mist, rain or snow, as well as in dry form. While the substances that produce acid rain also occur naturally, it is the man-made contributions that have transformed acid rain into an environmental problem. Acid rain causes the acidification of streams and lakes, contributes to damage of highly elevated trees, and also contributes to the cause of lung cancer and other major health problems to humans. Another concern about acid rain that has not been previously mentioned is the accelerating decay of building materials and paints, which includes many irreplaceable buildings, statues, sculptures, and monuments that are a part of our nations cultural heritage. If these monuments are destroyed, they can never be replaced, which will be the focus of this report. Before speaking of the direct effects of acid rain on materials, the process of the formation of acid rain must be understood. We now know that the primary causes of acid rain are emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO ) and nitrogen oxides (NO ). When Sulfur is emitted into the air, it is in the form of the SO gas. Naturally, there is not a significant amount of SO gas in the air, so the gas transfers through a series of oxidation reactions, resulting in the formation of H SO , or sulfuric acid. This acid can then dissolve in rainwater and lower the pH of precipitation dramatically. On the other hand, NO gases are formed through a completely different process. Naturally, the atmosphere contains a large percentage of N gas. High temperatures associated with the burn...

Friday, March 6, 2020

Anti LGBT law Essays

Anti LGBT law Essays Anti LGBT law Essay Anti LGBT law Essay LGBT youth as well as young adults are predisposed to more health concerns than heterosexual youth and young adults. A study by Ayalon and Alvidrez (2007, p.1326) revealed that there are many cases of HIV diagnoses among gays below 25 years of age who come from racial and ethnic minority communities. This study concluded that risk factors for mental health challenges and involvement in drug and substance abuse are more evident among LGBT youth than their heterosexual counterparts. The National Institute of Health (NIH) (2013, p.5) posits that these risk factors include victimization, violence, harassment, and homelessness that make the youth and young adults in LGBT communities vulnerable. North CarolinaAnti LGBT Law In March 2016, the Governor of North Carolina, Pat McCrory, signed a law that requires citizens to use multi-stall bathrooms based on their birth certificates at various institutions such as schools, universities, and state agencies. This law is against the interests of the LGBT population because it compels transgender people to use rooms designated for women (Kopan Scott, 2016, p.1). According to the law, sexual orientation as well as gender identity can neither be used as the premise for the protection of people by local measures nor compel businesses to offer high minimum wages or paid sick leave. The law prohibits workers to file suit in the state courts against discrimination on the grounds of religion, color, age, handicap, race, national origin, and sex. Instead, it requires people to file their complaints to the State Commission. Elsewhere, in Harris County, Texas, a new inmate policy came to effect in 2013. The policy seeks to protect and guarantee LGBT inmates equal treat ment (Weaver, 2013). For example, the policy allows transgender people to choose their preferred gender and not biological sex as the basis for their provision of housing. References Ayalon, L., Alvidrez, J. (2007). The experience of black consumers in the mental health systemidentifying barriers to and facilitators of mental health treatment using the consumers perspective, Issues in mental health nursing, 28(12), 1323-1340 NIH (2013). Consideration of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) ;;report on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, Retrieved from https://report.nih.gov/UploadDocs/LGBT%20Health%20Report_FINAL_2013-01-03-508%20compliant.pdf Weaver, L. (2013). Harris County announces Trans-inclusive Housing Policy in Its Jails. Human Rights Campaign. Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Loera, G., Mendez, L., Sala, M., ; Nakamoto, J. (2012). Community-defined solutions for Latino mental health care disparities: California reducing disparities project, Latino Strategic Planning Workgroup Population Report. Sacramento, CA: UC Davis. Alegr;a, M., Chatterji, P., Wells, K., Cao, Z., Chen, C. N., Takeuchi, D., ; Meng, X. L. (2015). Disparity in depression treatment among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Psychiatric services. American Psychological Association, Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs. (2008). A portrait of success and challenge-Progress report:1997-2005, Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from apa.org/pi/oema/programs/recruitment/draft-report-2007 aspx. Ayalon, L., ; Alvidrez, J. (2007). THE EXPERIENCE OF BLACK CONSUMERS IN THE MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM;IDENTIFYING BARRIERS TO AND FACILITATORS OF MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT USING THE CONSUMERSPERSPECTIVE. Issues in mental health nursing, 28(12), 1323-1340. Bahrampour, T. (2013). Therapist say African Americans are increasingly seeking help for mental illness. The Washington Post. Bridges, A. J., Andrews III, A. R., Villalobos, B. T., Pastrana, F. A., Cavell, T. A., Gomez, D. (2014). Does integrated behavioral health care reduce mental health disparities for Latinos? Initial findings. Journal of Latina/o psychology, 2(1), 37. Burns J. (2013). Mental health and inequity: A human rights approach to inequity, discrimination, and mental disability. Health and Human Rights Journal.11(2). Cook, J., Leff, H., Blyler, C., Gold, P., Goldberg, R., Mueser, K., et al. (2005). Results of a multisite randomized trial of supported employment interventions for individuals with severe mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(5), 505512. Davey G. (2013). Mental Health and Stigma. Psychology Today. Davis, K. (2012). Statistical Brief #358: Expenditures for Treatment of Mental Health Disorders among Young Adults, Ages 18-26, 2007-2009: Estimates for the U.S.Civilian Non-institutionalized Population. Rockville, MD: Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Folsom, D., Hawthorne, W., Lindamer, L., et. al. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for homelessness and utilization of mental health services among 10,340 patients with serious mental illness in a large public mental health system. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 370-376. Frank R., Beronio, K., Glied, S. (2014). Behavioral Health Parity and the Affordable Care Act. Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation. 2014; 13(1-2):31-43. Fund S.(2015) Challenging Views of Mental Health in Minority Communities. Diverse Harding, C., Brooks, G., Ashikaga, T., Strauss, J.S., Breier, A. (1987). The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144 (6), 727735. Hoblan R., (2015). NCGA Senate Health and Human Services Budget: First Look. North Carolina Health News. Holden K., McGregor B., Thandi P., Fresh E., Sheats K., Belton A., Mattox G., Satcher D. (2014). Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities Among Ethnic Minorities. Psychological Services.11(4):357-368. Jordan D. (2015) Going Mental: Minorities and Mental Health in Criminal Justice System. Decoded Science. Kessler, R., Heeringa, S., Lakoma, M., Petukhova, M., Rupp, A., Schoenbaum, M., et al. (2008). The individual-level and societal-level effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(6), 703-11. Kessler, R., McGonagle, K., Zhao, S., Nelson, C., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(1), 8-19. Kramer E., Francis G., (2009). I am not crazy. p 9. Lutterman T., Fiscal Year (2010). Revenues and Expenditure Study Results. SMHA Revenues and Expenditures Data Collection 2012, pdf. Macmadu A., Rich J. (2015). Correctional Health is Community Health. Issues in Science and Technology.32(1). Massetti G., (2016). Preventing Violence Among High-Risk Youth and Communities with Economic, Policy and Structural Strategies. Center for Disease Control and Prevention Report/Supplements. 65(1):57-60. McLaughlin, K. A., (2010). Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. Responses to discrimination and psychiatric disorders among black, Hispanic, female, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Am J Public Health. 100(8):1477-84. Mental and Behavioral Health. (2015). Options and opportunities for Minnesota. Minnesota Hospital Association. Minnesota Telemedicine Act (SF 981/HF 1246. (2015). Minnesota Hospital Association. National Institutes of Health. (2013). Consideration of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Retrieved from https://report.nih.gov/UploadDocs/LGBT%20Health%20Report_FINAL_2013-01-03-508%20compliant.pdf Rowings, K. (2015). Addressing mental Illness and Medical Conditions in County Jails: King County, WA. National Association of Counties . Ryan, C., Neil, K. (2015). The Integration for Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Other Behavioral Health Conditions into Primary Care: Executive Summary of an American College of Physicians Position Paper. Annals of Internal Medicine.163(4):298-299. Sarteschi, C. M. (2013). Mentally ill offenders involved with the US criminal justice system. Sage open, 3(3), 2158244013497029. Poulin, S. R., Maguire, M., Metraux, S., Culhane, D. P. (2010). Service use and costs for persons experiencing chronic homelessness in Philadelphia: a population-based study. Psychiatric Services, 61(11), 1093-1098. Simon, C. (2015). There is a stunning gap between the number of black and white inmates in Americas prison. Business insider . State Legislation Report. (2015). National Alliance on Mental Illness. Swanson, J., Swartz, M., Gilbert, A., Frisman, L., Lin, H. J., Rodis, E., Domino, M. (2011). Costs of criminal justice involvement among persons with severe mental illness in Connecticut. Final Report Submitted to Eli Lilly Co. Swanson, J. W., McGinty, E. E., Fazel, S., Mays, V. M. (2015). Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy. Annals of epidemiology, 25(5), 366-376. Thompson, J. (2016). Mental Health Month Provides Opportunity to Break Down Mental Health Stigma for Latino Community. CalMHSA. Underwood, L. A., Washington, A. (2016). Mental illness and juvenile offenders. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(2), 228. Weaver, L. (2013). Harris County announces Trans-inclusive Housing Policy in Its Jails. Human Rights Campaign . Joel E. Miller, et al., Nov. 2012. The Waterfall Effect: Transforming the Cascading Impact of Medicaid Expansion on States, National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. White House. (Jan. 16, 2013). Now is the Time; the presidents plan to protect our children and our communities by reducing gun violence. White House. Grissom, B (May 18, 2013) With Consensus and Money, State Takes on Mental Health Care. Buchanan, W. (June, 27 2013) Governor Brown Proudly Signs Balanced Budget. 34. Gray, CD (Jul. 3, 2013) House Passes. Kopan, T., Scott, E. (2016, March 24). North Carolina governor signs controversial transgender bill. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2016/03/23/politics/north-carolina-gender-bathrooms-bill/

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Community develeopment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Community develeopment - Assignment Example 1. A former legislative assembly member helped to moderate the discussion on the panel. 2. There was a doctor who was the head of the division of wellbeing, integrated care and ageing from the Department of Health. He shared information about the various medical facilities and services that were available throughout the region to homeless individuals. 3. One of the members was a public defender who was there to represent the legal interest of all indigent people in the community who cannot afford a lawyer. 4. There was also a member from the Flemington Presbyterian Church who brought forth information about the various services they provide for the homeless in their area. 5. Another member was a representative from the Adult and Family Homelessness Services (AFHS) which provides counselling, case management and outreach support to adults and families. 6. There was also a member from Stopover Youth Refuge which provides short-term crisis accommodation to single young people who are ho meless or at risk of homelessness. 7. Finally, there was also a representative of the Education Employment and Training Assistance (EET) program who brought forth her experience as a homeless person and helped in getting a better perspective of how a homeless person would view the programs and services made available to them. She is now working with EET to assist other homeless individuals in coming out of their situation. Process used to operate the meeting This meeting was called together by the members of the community forum to create awareness in the community about the issue of homelessness in the region. The meeting began with the moderator asking the members on the panel to introduce themselves. Following the introductions, the highlights of the previous community forum was read and approved. There were a few persisting issues like inadequate funding and lack of awareness in the community that were addressed during the meeting. An excerpt from the award-winning ‘Home Sa fe’ documentary was also shown during the meeting. The moderator presented the findings from a study conducted by the Victorian Council of Social Service and Housing Alliance Victoria which revealed that more than a third of Victoria’s homeless people who sought help in the past year were denied due to lack of funding. The report revealed that 11,678 people were turned away from homeless assistance services in 2003-04, while 31,359 people received help (The International Homeless Forum 2004). Various strategies to address this issue were discussed by the members in the panel. Light refreshments were served at the end of the meeting. Goals of the community forum The goal of this forum was to increase community awareness, gather community input and identify and develop sustainable solutions to address the issues surrounding homelessness in the city of Melbourne, Victoria. To achieve this goal, the attendees were provided information about what homelessness looks like in the city of Melbourne - addressing the various problems that homeless individuals face such as mental and physical health problems, addictions, lack of education, and other barriers to employment and housing. The various members of the forum presented the services that they offer and discussed the strengths and